Venture Debt: How to Fundamentally Get it Right

In part ten of his series on venture debt, Zack Ellison from Applied Real Intelligence explores fundamental analysis, emphasizing the most important aspects in lending to earlier-stage, high-growth companies.

Can you predict which start-ups will transform industries and which will fade away? In venture debt, the answers lie not in historical numbers, but in forward looking analysis. This article, part of a comprehensive series on venture debt, highlights how venture lenders use fundamental analysis to identify exceptional companies and effectively mitigate risks. (See the bottom of this column for links to parts 1-9 of the series).


Venture debt distinguishes itself from traditional lending through its dual objectives. The primary goal for all lenders is to ensure the full repayment of principal and interest, prioritizing the mitigation of downside risks.

 A unique and important secondary goal for venture lenders is to invest in companies poised for substantial growth. This growth can lead to significant appreciation in the value of equity warrants received in conjunction with the loan, providing lenders with significant potential upside.

 Start-ups, by their nature, are at pivotal stages of their development, frequently lacking in track record, consistent cash flows and profitability. Therefore, venture lenders often de-emphasize historical financial performance – which in start-ups can be limited or unrepresentative of future potential – and focus on predictive indicators of future performance. 

Traditional credit assessment techniques often fall short, and fundamental analysis must include a broader and deeper evaluation of a company’s growth potential and sustainability.


The art of venture lending is finding companies that are at an inflection point – those approaching a state of consistent profitability and significant scalability. These companies represent the “sweet spot” for lenders because they generate investment returns that can far exceed the actual risk being taken. Following a thorough analysis of the market opportunity, lenders seek the following fundamental factors:

  • Viable business plan and exit strategy. Lenders look for a well-articulated business plan that demonstrate the borrower’s viability through clear paths to key milestones, including profitability and positive free cash flow. Lenders prefer companies with realistic plans for debt repayment through organic growth rather than reliance on equity financing, being acquired or going public.
  • Growing revenue. Business models that generate high-growth recurring revenue are highly favored by lenders. Sticky revenue from subscriptions or long-term contracts provides stability and predictability, making it easier for lenders to assess the company’s ability to meet its debt obligations. Key metrics such as monthly recurring revenue, annual recurring revenue and last quarter annualized are typically used to measure revenue. High-margin, low-capital expenditure businesses are particularly attractive because they deliver higher operational efficiency and greater flexibility in cash flow management. Furthermore, a diversified revenue base with low customer concentration enhances resilience against market fluctuations, reducing risk and ensuring more consistent revenue.
  • Strong product and market fit. The lender must determine if the product solves a significant problem for customers, justifying its market existence. Assessing the product’s market fit is imperative, as strong customer adoption and positive feedback confirm there is genuine demand and potential for significant sustained gains in market share. Competitive positioning within the industry is another critical factor. Ideally, the borrower will have a market-leading, proprietary product that is difficult to replicate, generating a competitive edge and barriers to entry for competitors. Lenders also like to see a strong product development pipeline that ensures continuous innovation, helping maintain the company’s competitive edge.
  • Loyal customers. The strength of a company’s customer base is crucial for its financial stability and growth prospects. By evaluating customer demographics, purchasing behaviors and loyalty metrics, lenders can gain insights into market penetration and potential for sustained growth. Key indicators such as customer acquisition cost, retention and churn rates, customer lifetime value, net promoter score and overall customer satisfaction are often used to assess how well the company attracts, retains and satisfies its customers.
  • Operating efficiency. Operating efficiency demonstrates how effectively a company can convert resources into revenue, free cash flow and profits. For start-ups, operational efficiency is typically measured through unit economics, which assess the profitability of each unit or transaction. Key metrics such as average revenue per user, average gross margin, payback period (the time required for customer revenue to offset acquisition costs) and breakeven points reveal how well resources are utilized. These metrics are critical for lenders evaluating a start-up’s capacity to boost revenue without excessive cost escalation, indicating its potential for scalable growth.
  • Viable capital structure, leverage and interest coverage. Lenders thoroughly assess the company’s debt structure and cash flow adequacy, evaluating leverage ratios such as debt relative to enterprise value, revenue and available cash, among other financial metrics. Interest coverage ratios are also used to assess the company’s earnings capacity for covering interest payments.
  • Sufficient runway. The concept of runway – the amount of time a company can operate with its current financial resources before requiring additional capital – is particularly relevant in assessing the risk of default. Now, more than ever, lenders seek companies that have the ability to be capital efficient and dial back spending when needed while preserving core business activities.
  • Equity investment potential. When evaluating a company’s fundamentals, venture lenders must be keenly aware of how venture equity investors perceive the company’s potential. Ensuring that the company can attract future equity investments if required is crucial for its long-term financial health and growth prospects. This involves understanding market sentiment, investor appetite and the company’s ability to present a compelling growth narrative.

By meticulously assessing a borrower’s fundamental aspects, lenders can safeguard their investments while uniquely positioning themselves to benefit from the exceptional growth trajectories of successful start-ups

Next month, we will shift our focus to the critical role of leadership teams in determining a start-up’s success, further enhancing our comprehensive understanding of venture debt.


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